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Istilah:

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1.) Pengertian Filsafat
Etimologi:
Philos berarti kekasih, suka atau senang. Shopia berarti kebijaksanaan atau kebenaran. Secara harfiah filsafat berarti mencintai kebijaksanaan atau pengetahuan.
Istilah:
Menurut Plato: filsafat adalah ilmu pengetahuan yang berusaha meraih kebenaran yang asli atau murni,
2.) Latar Belakang Lahirnya Filsafat:
Ketakjuban terhadap objek
Ketidakpuasan
Hasrat bertanya
Keraguan
3.) Sifat Dasar Filsafat
Berfikir radikal yaitu berfikir mendalam untuk mencari akar persoalaan.
Mencari asas yang paling hakiki / esensi dari keseluruhan realitas
Memburu kebenaran hakiki tentang seluruh realitas
Mencari kejelasan dan penjelasan mengenai seluruh realitas
Berfikir rasional yakni logis, sistematis dan kritis.
4.) OBJEK MATERIAL FILSAFAT ILMU
Objek material adl pokok bahasan/materi yg menjadi objek penyelidikan.
Objek material filsafat ilmu adl ilmu pengetahuan yakni pengetahuan yang telah disusun secara sistematis dengan metode ilmiah tertentu.
5.) OBJEK FORMAL FILSAFAT ILMU
Objek formal adl pendekatan untuk memahami objek material.
Objek formal filsafat ilmu adl hakekat ilmu pengetahuan yang lebih fokus pada problem-problem mendasar ilmu pengetahuan.
6.) OBJEK FILSAFAT ILMU
FILSAFAT ILMU
PENGETAHUAN
HAKEKAT PENGETAHUAN
PERSOALAN FILSAFAT ILMU
7.) Asal usul pengetahuan
Peran pengalaman dan akal
Hubungan pengetahuan dengan keniscayaan
Skeptisisme universal
Bentuk-bentuk perubahan pengetahuan
8.) Tujuan Filsafat Ilmu
Sarana pengujian penalaran ilmiah.
Usaha merefleksi, menguji, mengkritik asumsi dan metode keilmuan.
Memberikan landasan logis terhadap Sumber Ilmu Pengetahuan
9.) Akal budi atau rasio.
akal pikiran memiliki fungsi penting dalam proses mengetahui. Pengetahuan pada hakekatnya berdasar pada akal/rasio. Tanpa akal pikiran tidak ada yang dipikirkan, tidak ada yang diketahui dan tidak ada pengetahuan.
10.) Pengalaman indrawi.
pengetahuaan pada hakekatnya berdasarkan pengalaman melalui alat indra.
11.) DELAPAN ASPEK PEMBENTUK STRUKTUR PENGETAHUAN
Mengamati
Menyelidiki
Percaya
Hasrat
Maksud
Mengatur
Menyesuaikan
menikmati
12.) METODE ILMU PENGETAHUAN
DEDUKTIF
INDUKTIF
KONTEMPLASI
DIALEKTIKA
DEDUKTIF
13.) TEORI/HUKUM
FAKTA
FAKTA
FAKTA
KONKLUSI
KONKLUSI
KONKLUSI
14.) TEORI
TEORI SUBSTANTIF
TEORI SUBSTANTIF
TEORI SUBSTANTIF
GENERALISASI
GENERALISASI
GENERALISASI
FAKTA
FAKTA
FAKTA
15.) DIALEKTIKA
TESIS
ANTI-TESIS
SINTESIS
TESIS
ANTI-TESIS
SINTESIS
TESIS
16.) KONTEMPLASI
INTUISI
AKAL BUDI
AKAL BUDI
PENGETAHUAN
PENGETAHUAN
KONKLUSI
17.) CIRI ILMU PENGETAHUAN
Berlaku umum tidak tergantung faktor subjektif
Bersifat otonom tidak terpengaruh faktor-faktor eksternal
Memiliki dasar pembenaran
Sistematik
Intersubjektif
18.) CIRI ILMU PENGETAHUAN
RASIONAL
EMPIRIS
UNIVERSAL
AKUMULATIF
ILMU PENGETAHUAN
SISTEMATIS
OBJEKTIF
19.) KARAKTERISTIK PENGETAHUAN
Pengetahuan indrawi yang didasarkan pengalaman manusia sehari-hari
Pengetahuan akal budi yang didasarkan kekuatan rasio
Pengetahuan intuitif yang didasarkan kekuatan intuisi
Pengetahuan kepercayaan atau pengetahuan otoritaatif yakni pengetahuan yang dibangun atas kredibilitas seorang tokoh/kelompok yang profesional di bidangnya.
20.) Peran Filsafat Barat Terhadap Perkembangan Ilmu
Perkembangan Pemikiran Filsafat Barat:
-Zaman Yunani Kuno: Kosmosentrisme
-Abad pertengahan: Teosentrisme
-Abad modern: Antroposentrisme
Abad kontemporer: Logosentrisme
21.) Zaman Yunani Kuno (6 sm-6m)
Pemikiran Filsafat:
-Thales: air merupakan arche (asal mula) dari segala sesuatu.
-Anaximenes: udara merupakan asal mula segala sesuatu
– Pythagoras: asas segala sesuatu dapat diterangkan atas segaala bilangan.
-Parmenides: gagasan tentang ″ada″ / metafisika, empirisme
Socrates: dialektika
Plato: ide tentang dualisme yaitu dunia ide (tetap) dan dunia bayangan (berubah)
22.) Zaman Yunani…
Pemikiran Filsafat:
-Aristoteles: tugas utama ilmu pengetahuan ialah mencari penyebab-penyebab objek yang diselidiki. Ada empat penyebab:
1. penyebab material
2. penyebab formal
3. penyebab efisien
final
23.) ZAMAN PERTENGAHAN (6M-16M)
Thomas Aquinas:
Teori penciptaan alam yakni Tuhan menciptakan alam semesta. Tuhan menciptakan dari ketiadaan. Mencipta berarti secara terus menerus menghasilkan serta memelihara ciptaan.
24.) ZAMAN RENAISANS (14M-16M/ TRANSISI)
Semakin berkurangnya kekuasaan gereja.
Era kelahiran kembali kebebasan manusia dalam berfikir, melepaskan diri dari otoritas kekuasaan gereja yang mengungkung.
Teori geosentrisme dari ptolomeus yang didukung oleh gereja dipatahkan dengan teori heliosentrisme (copernicus)
Semakin bertambahnya kekuasaan ilmu pengetahuan
25.) ZAMAN MODERN (17M-19M)
Wacana filsafat yang menjadi topik utama ialah persoalan epistemologi.
Berkembang paham rasionalisme (Rene Descartes, Spinosa, dan Leibness) sumber pengetahuan adalah akal / rasio.
Pengalaman empiris hanya dapat digunakan untuk mengukuhkan kebenaran pengetahuan yang telah diperoleh melalui akal.
Berkembang paham empirisme (Francis Bacon, David Hume), mereka menolak rasionalisme yang bersifat apriori. Sumber pengetahuan adalah pengalaman. Menurut empirisme manusia tidak punya ide bawaan/ innate ideas
26.) ZAMAN PERTENGAHAN (6M-16M)
Thomas Aquinas:
Teori penciptaan alam yakni Tuhan menciptakan alam semesta. Tuhan menciptakan dari ketiadaan. Mencipta berarti secara terus menerus menghasilkan serta memelihara ciptaan.
27.) ZAMAN MODERN (17M-19M)
KRITISISME
IDEALISME
POSITIVISME
MARXISME
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