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Learning Goal: I’m working on a nursing multi-part question and need a sample draft to help me learn.
fill out of this journal template:
Topic- death with dignity
1. What are the key points of contention on this topic?
2. What side of the argument (stance) do you take on this topic?
3. What strong points does the other side of this topic have?
4. What were the three most important things you took away from the topic?
5. Which ethical theory (of the 6 approved ones ONLY – Kant; Act Utilitarianism; Rule Utilitarianism; Care Ethics; Virtue Ethics; and Social Contract) would you apply to this topic to defend your stance? Explain fully. 250 words.
In this reflection you must first define the key terms of the debate (for example, define what Euthanasia/Abortion/Stem Cell/Public Health/PreNatal Testing/Animal Research/Health Care, etc. means and what are the different types depending on which topic you are discussing)- for this topic- DEATH WITH DIGNITY, PHYSICIAN ASSISTED SUICIDE
Define and explain the ethical theory you chose (show me you know exactly what the theory is and does – in your own words)
Present the evidence both pro and con and follow up how using your ethical theory is the best way to determine whether or not your stance is really ethical
Conclusion – any final thoughts and opinions would go here
2 to 3 resources as support for your evidence (text book counts as 1)
textbook- Pence, G. E. (2008). Classic cases in medical ethics: Accounts of the cases and issues that define medical ethics. McGraw-Hill.
Reflection involves critical thinking, which means rethinking your existing knowledge and previously held opinions in light of what we have learned about theories of ethics, logic, and reasoning. You will need to question your current knowledge and beliefs. Discuss the main points of the debate, what stance you take, support that stance, and discuss the opposing argument. Also, discuss an ethical theory that would apply to defend your view.
Be sure to address, at a minimum, the following questions:
Why do you feel the way you do about the issue (death with dignity) presented?
Of the four responses offered in the scenario, which do you think is the most ethical and why? (screenshot of the four)
Which ethical theory would you use to support your stance? Why does this theory work?
There are currently six (6) acceptable ethical theories that are applicable to Medical Ethics: (1) Kant; (2) Social Contract; (3) Act Utilitarianism; (4) Rule Utilitarianism; (5) Care Ethics’ and (6) Virtue Ethics.
A quick overview is provided below to simplify them in more common terms:
Kant-(deontological approach – what is my duty?) – 2 Imperatives : (1) If we universalize an action (if everyone did this) would it be good or bad? If good – action is moral. Remember universal means no exceptions (2) Act in such a way as not to use people (think the Golden Rule – do unto others what you want them to do to you
Social Contract- (deontological- based on duty to follow the rules) – an unwritten contract that rational people agree to follow for the benefit of society. There are three types (1) Hobbes version – a benevolent king makes the decisons for all people and enforced the rules (like a caring father). These rules will be followed by all people because a good ruler is working for all societies benefits. (2) Rousseau version – no man has the right to rule over others without consent so this ruler(s) in his version is elected by the people who agree that this person/these people will make good laws to govern. if the laws turn out bad, they can be changed and a new government elected. and (3) Rawls version – the systems set up currently are inherently unfair and unjust so we must follow the Principle of Justice which says all laws that are made need to benefit the least advantaged members of society and not those with existing advantages so that everyone can have equal access to rights and privileges.
Act Utilitarianism (consequentialist theory – depends on the consequences) – Relies on the Greatest Happiness Principle – an action is right to the extent that it creates more happiness (benefit, advantage, good, or pleasure) and an action is wrong to the extent it creates less happiness (cost, disadvantage, evil or pain). Two major schools of Utilitarianism: 1) Bentham – animals suffer and need to be included, and so do non-rational beings; 2) Mills – women are equal to men and need to be included Act Utilitarianism is concerned with that particular action only (so not all lies just this one instance and every instance must be measured the same way) and only to those affected by that action
Rule Utilitarianism- (consequentialist theory) – Built on the same Principle of Happiness as Act Utilitarianism. The greatest amount of happiness is created by a rule.
Rule Utilitarianism is focused not on individual actions but on the rule that should be followed that would create the greatest amount of happiness. In a way, it is like a categorical imperative yet it is not concerned with universals but rather just a majority of people being happy if this rule is followed. Rules can be laws or maxims.
Virtue Ethics -(deontological theory – based on your duty). Created by Aristotle (so our oldest ethical theory) that claims it is not what rules you follow that make you ethical but instead it is what you are and do. Virtue Ethics focuses on the person and their actions. A virtuous person behaves virtuously and therefore is moral. A virtuous person practices being virtuous by living by adopting the virtues of compassion, honesty, justice, empathy, bravery, temperance, liberality, beneficence, patience, good temper, righteous indignation, magnanimity, proper ambition/pride, friendliness, and modesty. While at the same time avoiding extremes in either direction – neither too little nor too much of each which would lead to vices and not virtues – so living in the middle path (similar to Buddhism). For example, bravery is in the middle of cowardly and rashness (a good list is here – https://www.cwu.edu/~warren/Unit1/aristotleshtm
Care Ethics- (deontological- it is your duty to care for people in a kind way). Care Ethics was the first ethical theory to concern itself with how people are with one another rather than rules or justice. It is also the first ethical theory created by women philosophers. Care Ethics makes the claim we only really do things we care about – so we should be measuring how we care and determining how that makes us moral or immoral. In Care Ethics the focus is on the interactions that we have with other people. So in order to measure the morality or immorality of a person via care ethics, we must watch how their interrelationships are in their actions with others (people, animals, etc). In other words, moral people treat people well and as equals, and immoral people do not. It is probably the most common ethical theory used in the medical professions (nursing in particular since patient interaction is not only crucial it is vital in the recovery process – a nurse who doesn’t care about or like his/her patients would be an immoral person).
Support your conclusions with evidence and specific examples from the textbook, including a minimum of one theory of ethics to defend your stance.
Your reflection for the last question must be 1-2 pages in length and follow APA formatting and citation guidelines as appropriate, making sure to cite at least two sources.
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