Respond to the following two each one 75 words. responses to other learners shou

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Respond to the following two each one 75
words. responses to other learners should
also be substantive posts that contribute to
the conversation by asking questions,
respectfully debating positions, and
presenting supporting information relevant to
the topic (do not plagiarize, APA citations are
not required for discussions. However, if
outside material is used, you are required to
cite references).
1.When looking at whether at whether a centralized or decentralized approach will be most successful when running an agency, you first need to look at the organization itself. Criminal justice organizations differ greatly in terms of structure and size. When looking at corrections, a rural jail housing less than 150 inmates will make decisions very differently than Chicago’s Cook County Jail, housing over 5000 inmates (Sabino, 2022). Whether or not decision making is centralized, decentralized, or a mix of the two depends, in part, on the organization’s basic values, management philosophy, and decision-making processes. Therefore, we absolutely should consider the missions of these agencies, their organizational structure, and the major areas of their services. In many cases, decisions may be made by top managers in some cases and subordinates in other cases. For example, a warden of a correctional institution may be seen as having better decision-making skills than their subordinates, as they spent their career coming up through the ranks. However, the warden may decide to decentralize the decision-making process in some cases if they feel they have limited knowledge about a specific component of the agency. As such, it is unlikely that any one agency is purely centralized or decentralized (Stojkovic et al., 2015).
Sabino, P. (2022, January 11). Covid-19 outbreak at Cook County Jail is biggest yet as incarcerated population swells to pre-pandemic levels. Block Club Chicago. Retrieved August 29, 2022, from
2.As we discuss open and closed systems in our countries’ federal agencies we need to understand what these two types of systems are. Open systems are forever changing with their environments and they are quick to adjust and do whatever is necessary to keep those around them happy. Closed systems are all internal and do not interact with their outside environment. As we decide which organization is which, we must take into account their missions, structure and operations. For example recently more local police departments have turned to an open system because they must always stay in contact and adjust to their area’s citizens and events around them. Their mission is to help serve and protect the good people of their area by any means necessary while also being a part of a hierarchical organizational structure. Especially nowadays with the defund the police movements and citizens not liking how their local police departments operate, having an open system is proving to be very beneficial. Not all our countries’ agencies are like this, but I believe that if some of them were more open to the well educated ideas of the people, there could be more of an understanding between everyone.
CORDNER, G. W., & Corporate Author International Assoc of Chiefs of Police Address 44 Canal Center Plaza. (1978). Open and closed models of police organizations traditions, dilemmas, and practical considerations. OPEN AND CLOSED MODELS OF POLICE ORGANIZATIONS TRADITIONS, DILEMMAS, AND PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS | Office of Justice Programs. Retrieved August 31, 2022, from

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